Ligustrum Lucidum Tree Shrub Herb (Glossy Privet)

Ligustrum Lucidum (Glossy Privet)

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Description of Ligustrum Lucidum

Ligustrum Lucidum a ornamental shrub or small tree, commonly known as Chinese or Glossy Privet, is a member of the olive family and has been widely used in Chinese medicine for well over a thousand years. Native to eastern asia, Malaysia and, of course, China, it is now cultivated in the united states predominantly an as ornamental shrub or small tree. It has invasive qualities, however, and is of some concern in certain areas.

Traditionally it is known as one of the Chinese longevity tonics, nourishing the 'yin' and used to supplement the kidneys and liver energy. It is also used to treat tinnitus and hearing loss, to clear vision in the case of blurriness and cataracts; to relieve rheumatic and back pains, reduce heart palpitations and mitigate insomnia.

Increasingly western research is starting to support some of the ethnomedical claims, revealing some very effective biochemical components. Studies have indeed shown that components of Ligustrum Lucidum have a powerful effect on respiratory and flu viruses. They also increase blood flow to the heart, reduce palpitations and spasmodic effects and support immune functions especially in tumor patients.

Key uses of Ligustrum Lucidum

  • Effective against several flu and cold viruses
  • Immune Support
  • Anti-oxidant
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Clinical Applications of Ligustrum Lucidum

    Anti-bacterial and anti-viral: in vitro studies have shown Ligustrum Lucidum to exert a powerful suppression of Type A& B flu viruses as well as Respiratory Syncytial Virus. It is also reported to be effective against herpes virus, mononucleosis, hepititus virus, rotovirus, bovine rhinovirus, canine parvovirus, and feline leukaemia.

    Immune support: : Indications are that Ligustrum Lucidum increases certain white blood cells and their defense activities, especially in the case of chemotherapy and other cancer treatments.

    Cardiovascular: Research confirms increases in cardio blood flow as well as a reduction of blood lipids and platelet build up. In addition, studies show an anti-spasmodic and anti-palpitation action in the heart.

    Anti-oxidant: Preliminary studies indicate that the Oleanic acid exerts an influence that protects red blood cells from free radicals.

    Anti-inflammatory: Ligustrin (Oleanic acid) has shown significant anti-inflammatory action.

    How  Ligustrum Lucidum Works

    Ligustrum Lucidum contains several active components that have demonstrated an expansive effect on the body. Six Secoiridoid Glucosides were found in vitro to have potency against Influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1,2,and 3, and RVC (respiratory syncytial virus). Oleuropein was particularly potent, out performing current prescriptions in vitro. Other research has shown similar efficacy against other bacterias and viruses.

    It has also been shown to exert potency in the cardiovascular system, increasing cardio blood supply and inhibiting the clumping off platelets in the blood. It also reduces the lipoproteins associated with heart disease and protects red blood cells from free radical damage.

    The immune support functions of Ligustrum Lucidum not only increase phagocytes and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells, they also exhibit an anti-tumor effect by reversing the immune suppressing aspects associated with tumors and to mitigate.bone marrow loss in cancer chemotherapy patients. There is also potential for the use of Ligustrum Lucidum in the treatment of AIDS.

    Ligustrum Lucidum Side Effects and Safety

    Ligustrum Lucidum has no know side effects and is considered safe even for long-term use.

    Precautions of Ligustrum Lucidum

    Pregnant or breastfeeding mothers, should consult with your physician before taking any medication, including herbs.

    Recommended Dosage of Ligustrum Lucidum

    Because herbs also contain active chemical substances which can and will interact with others, no herb or drug should be taken without first consulting with one's physician.

    Powdered, encapsulated berries, 1-3 teaspoons (5-15 grams) per day, are sometimes recommended. A similar amount of berries can be made into tea by adding 1/2-1 teaspoon (2-5 grams) of powdered or crushed berries to 1 cup (250 ml) of boiling water and steeping for ten to fifteen minutes. Alternatively, 3/4-1 teaspoon (3-5 ml) of tincture three times per day can be taken.

    Product With Ligustrum Lucidum

    AvaFlu Advanced Formula Cold, Flu, Sinusitis, Immune Booster

    Ligustrum Lucidum Research

    1) Shuang-Cheng MA, Zhen-Dan HE, Xue-Long DENG, Paul Pui-Hay BUT, Vincent Eng-Choon OOI, Hong-Xi XU, Spencer Hon-Sun LEE and Song-Fong LEE In Vitro Evaluation of Secoiridoid Glucosides from the Fruits of Ligustrum lucidum as Antiviral Agents. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001 Nov;49(11):1471-3.

    2) He ZD, But PPH, Chan TW, Dong H, Xu HX, Lau CP, Sun HD. Antioxidative glucosides from the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001 Jun;49(6):780-4.

    3) Shoemaker M, Hamilton B, Dairkee SH, Cohen I, Campbell MJ. In vitro anticancer activity of twelve Chinese medicinal herbs. Phytother Res. 2005 Jul;19(7):649-51.

    4) Tattini M, Guidi L, Morassi-Bonzi L, Pinelli P, Remorini D, Degl'Innocenti E, Giordano C, Massai R, Agati G. On the role of flavonoids in the integrated mechanisms of response of Ligustrum vulgare and Phillyrea latifolia to high solar radiation. New Phytol. 2005 Aug;167(2):457-70.

    5) Lirussi D, Li J, Prieto JM, Gennari M, Buschiazzo H, Rios JL, Zaidenberg A. Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi by plant extracts used in Chinese medicine. Fitoterapia. 2004 Dec;75(7-8):718-23.

    6) Pan WJ, Xiao XH, Xiao X, Yuan HL, Zhao YL. [Studies on extraction process of Fructus Schisandrae chinensis and Fructus Ligustri lucidi in gandening tablet] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Aug;29(8):743-5.

    7) Aragon R, Groom M., Invasion by Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae) in NW Argentina: early stage characteristics in different habitat types. Rev Biol Trop. 2003 Mar;51(1):59-70.

    8) Zhang XZ, Zhao KL, Dai Q, Li L, Zhang BL. [The effects of the tangfukang capsules on cytokines of early diabetic nephropathy] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 May;28(5):452-5.

    9) Katsube T, Tabata H, Ohta Y, Yamasaki Y, Anuurad E, Shiwaku K, Yamane Y. Screening for antioxidant activity in edible plant products: comparison of low-density lipoprotein oxidation assay, DPPH radical scavenging assay, and Folin-Ciocalteu assay. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Apr 21;52(8):2391-6.

    10) Nariman F, Eftekhar F, Habibi Z, Falsafi T. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of six Iranian plants. Helicobacter. 2004 Apr;9(2):146-51.

    11) Akimoto T, Cho S, Yoshida H, Furuta H, Esashi Y. Involvement of acetaldehyde in seed deterioration of some recalcitrant woody species through the acceleration of aerobic respiration. Plant Cell Physiol. 2004 Feb;45(2):201-10.

    12) Li H, Wang Q. Evaluation of free hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of some Chinese herbs by capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2004 Apr;378(7):1801-5. Epub 2004 Feb 25.

    13) Milne RI, Abbott RJ. Geographic origin and taxonomic status of the invasive Privet, Ligustrum robustum (Oleaceae), in the Mascarene Islands, determined by chloroplast DNA and RAPDs. Heredity. 2004 Feb;92(2):78-87.

    14) Ouyang MA, He ZD, Wu CL. Anti-oxidative activity of glycosides from Ligustrum sinense. Nat Prod Res. 2003 Dec;17(6):381-7.

    15) Liu H, Shi Y, Wang D, Yang G, Yu A, Zhang H. MECC determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid isomers in Ligustrum lucidum Ait. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2003 Jul 14;32(3):479-85.

    16) Xie Y, Hang TJ, Cheng Z, Zhang ZX, An DK.[HPLC determination of oleanolic acid and llrolic acid in Chinese medicinal herbs] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2001 Sep;26(9):615-6.

    17) Guan Y, Zhou Z, Zhang C, Ruan Y, Wu Z. Effect of A-L tonic capsule on DNA content in rat experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2002;22(1):12-3, 16.

    18) Wang Q, Yu H, Zong J, He P, Fang Y. Determination of the composition of Chinese ligustrum lucidum
    polysaccharide by capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal.
    2003 Mar 10;31(3):473-80.

    19) Lu J, Zou Y, Xu Q, Zhang S, Zhang W, Tang S, Guan H, Wang X. [Long-term toxicity experiment with tea for descending lipid and declining fat] Zhong Yao Cai. 2002 Jun;25(6):423-5.

    20) Lu J, Zou Y, Xu Q, Zhang S, Zhang W, Tang S, Guan H, Wang X. [Long-term toxicity experiment with tea for descending lipid and declining fat] Zhong Yao Cai. 2002 Jun;25(6):423-5.

    21) Cao H, Liang S, Rong X, Wu Q. [Study on erzhi pill effects on neuro-endocrinologic-immuno network of animal of deficiency of yin] Zhong Yao Cai. 2000 Mar;23(3):164-6.

    22) Jiang H, Huang X, Yang Y, Zhang Q. [Studies on the antilipid peroxidation of nine sorts of Chinese herbal medicines with the function of protecting liver]

    23) Zhong Yao Cai. 1997 Dec;20(12):624-6. Wang Q, Fan M, Bian Z, Nie M, Chen Z. Extract and identify ingredient from Ligustrum Lucidum Ait and study its effect to periodontal pathogen. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2002 ep;37(5):388-90.

    24) Lau KM, He ZD, Dong H, Fung KP, But PP. Anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and hepato-protective effects of Ligustrum robustum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Nov;83(1-2):63-71.

    25) Tam WY, Chen ZY, He ZD, Yao X, Lau CW, Huang Y. Enhancement of contraction of rat mesenteric artery by acteoside: role of endothelial nitric oxide. J Nat Prod. 2002 Jul;65(7):990-5.

    26) Hsieh TC, Lu X, Guo J, Xiong W, Kunicki J, Darzynkiewicz Z, Wu JM. Effects of herbal preparation Equiguard on hormone-responsive and hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma cells: mechanistic studies. Int J Oncol. 2002 Apr;20(4):681-9.

    27) Yim TK, Wu WK, Pak WF, Ko KM. Hepatoprotective action of an oleanolic acid-enriched extract of Ligustrum lucidum fruits is mediated through an enhancement on hepatic glutathione regeneration capacity in mice. Phytother Res. 2001 Nov;15(7):589-92.

    28) Ma SC, He ZD, Deng XL, But PP, Ooi VE, Xu HX, Lee SH, Lee SF. In vitro evaluation of secoiridoid glucosides from the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum as antiviral agents. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001 Nov;49(11):1471-3.

    29) Shi LF, Cao YY, Chen HS, Dong JP. [Isolation and identification of two new secoiridoids of water-soluble chemical constituents from the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum Ait] Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1997 Jun;32(6):442-6.

    30) Shi L, Cai Z, Wu G, Yang S, Ma Y. [RP-HPLC determination of water-soluble active constituents and oleanolic acid in the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum Ait. collected from various areas] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1998 Feb;23(2):77-9, 127.

    31) Wong IY, He ZD, Huang Y, Chen ZY. Antioxidative activities of phenylethanoid glycosides from Ligustrum purpurascens. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Jun;49(6):3113-9.

    32) He ZD, But PPH, Chan TW, Dong H, Xu HX, Lau CP, Sun HD. Antioxidative glucosides from the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001 Jun;49(6):780-4.

    33) Feng SL, Li SH, Wang Y, Chen CC, Gao B. Effect of ligustrum fruit extract on reproduction in experimental diabetic rats. Asian J Androl. 2001 Mar;3(1):71-3.

    34) He ZD, Dong H, Xu HX, Ye WC, Sun HD, But PP. Secoiridoid constituents from the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum. Phytochemistry. 2001 Feb;56(4):327-30.

    35) Jantova S, Nagy M, Ruzekova L, Grancai D. Cytotoxic effects of plant extracts from the families Fabaceae, Oleaceae, Philadelphaceae, Rosaceae and Staphyleaceae. Phytother Res. 2001 Feb;15(1):22-5.

    36) Wallander E, Albert VA. Phylogeny and classification of Oleaceae based on rps16 and trnL-F sequence data. Am J Bot. 2000 Dec;87(12):1827-1841.

    37) Romani A, Pinelli P, Mulinacci N, Vincieri FF, Gravano E, Tattini M. HPLC analysis of flavonoids and secoiridoids in leaves of Ligustrum vulgare L. (Oleaceae). J Agric Food Chem.2000 ep;48(9):4091-6.

    38) Pieroni A, Pachaly P. An ethnopharmacological study on common privet (Ligustrum vulgare) and phillyrea (Phillyrea latifolia). Fitoterapia. 2000 Aug;71 Suppl 1:S89-94.

    39) Pieroni A, Pachaly P, Huang Y, Van Poel B, Vlietinck AJ. Studies on anti-complementary activity of extracts and isolated flavones from Ligustrum vulgare and Phillyrea latifolia leaves (Oleaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Jun;70(3):213-7.

    40) Pieroni A, Pachaly P. Isolation and structure elucidation of ligustroflavone, a new apigenin triglycoside from the leaves of Ligustrum vulgare L. Pharmazie. 2000 Jan;55(1):78-80.

    41) Baronikova S, Nagy M, Grancai D. Changes in immunomodulatory activity of human mononuclear cells after cultivation with leaf decoctions from the genus Ligustrum L. Phytother Res. 1999 Dec;13(8):692-5.

    42) Konno K, Hirayama C, Yasui H, Nakamura M. Enzymatic activation of oleuropein: A protein crosslinker used as a chemical defense in the privet tree Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Aug 3;96(16):9159-64.

    43) Kikuchi M, Kakuda R. [Studies on the constituents of Ligustrum species. XIX. Structures of iridoid glucosides from the leaves of Ligustrum lucidum AIT] Yakugaku Zasshi. 1999 Jun;119(6):444-50.

    44) Katsiotis A, Hagidimitriou M, Douka A, Hatzopoulos P. Genomic organization, sequence interrelationship, and physical localization using in situ hybridization of two tandemly repeated DNA sequences in the genus Olea. Genome. 1998 Aug;41(4):527-34.

    45) Shi L, Ma Y, Cai Z. Quantitative determination of salidroside and specnuezhenide in the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum Ait by high performance liquid chromatography. Biomed Chromatogr. 1998 Jan-Feb;12(1):27-30.

    46) Fukuda T, Kitada Y, Chen XM, Yang L, Miyase T. Two new monoterpene glycosides from ku-ding-cha.
    Inhibitors of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1996 Nov;44(11):2173-6.

    47) Fernandez MC, Olmedilla A, Alche JD, Palomino P, Lahoz C, Rodriguez-Garcia MI. Immunogold probes
    for light and electron microscopic localization of Ole e I in several Oleaceae pollens. J Histochem Cytochem. 1996 Feb;44(2):151-8.

    48) Khoo KS, Ang PT. Extract of astragalus membranaceus and ligustrum lucidum does not prevent cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression. Singapore Med J. 1995 Aug;36(4):387-90.

    49) Wang SS, Chen JH, Liu XJ. [Preliminary study on pharmacologic action of Ligustrum japonicum] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1994 Nov;14(11):670-2.

    50) He ZD, Ueda S, Akaji M, Fujita T, Inoue K, Yang CR. Monoterpenoid and phenylethanoid glycosides from Ligustrum pedunculare. Phytochemistry. 1994 Jun;36(3):709-16.

    51) Lau BH, Ruckle HC, Botolazzo T, Lui PD. Chinese medicinal herbs inhibit growth of murine renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Biother. 1994 Summer;9(2):153-61

    52) Niikawa M, Hayashi H, Sato T, Nagase H, Kito H. Isolation of substances from glossy privet (Ligustrum lucidum Ait.) inhibiting the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene in bacteria. Mutat Res. 1993 Sep;319(1):1-9.

    53) Department of Public Health, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Japan. Methanol and hot-water extracts of glossy privet (Ligustrum lucidum Ait.) inhibited the mutagenic activity of benzo[a]pyrene in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 with S9 mix. The methanol extract was fractionated with ether and n-hexane. As the active components, oleanolic and ursolic acids were isolated, which were soluble in ether and insoluble in n-hexane. The hot-water extract was fractionated to water, 60% and 100% methanol fractions. Nuezhenide was isolated from the 60% methanol fraction as the active component. Ding A, Wang S, Kong L, Li X. [Pharmacological studies on erzhi pills] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1992 Sep;17(9):531-4, 575-6.

    54) Wong BY, Lau BH, Tadi PP, Teel RW. Chinese medicinal herbs modulate mutagenesis, DNA binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1. Mutat Res. 1992 Jun 1;279(3):209-16.

    55) Rittenhouse JR, Lui PD, Lau BH. Chinese medicinal herbs reverse macrophage suppression induced by urological tumors. J Urol. 1991 Aug;146(2):486-90.

    56) Zhang H, Huang J. [Preliminary study of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of minimal brain dysfunction: analysis of 100 cases] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1990 May;10(5):278-9, 260.

    57) Lee C, Kwak J, Bard AJ. Application of scanning electrochemical microscopy to biological samples. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Mar;87(5):1740-3.

    58) Wang J, Hou G. [Chemical constituents of the flower of Ligustrum lucidum Ait.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1990 Mar;15(3):168-70, 191.

    59) Rong Y, Ye XC. [TLC densitometric determination of oleanolic acid in Ligustrum lucidum Ait.] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1989 Nov;14(11):681-2, 704.

    60) Sun Y, Hersh EM, Talpaz M, Lee SL, Wong W, Loo TL, Mavligit GM. Immune restoration and/or augmentation of local graft versus host reaction by traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. Cancer. 1983 Jul 1;52(1):70-3.

    61) Peng Y. [Prevention of experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits with Ligustrum lucidum fruit] Zhong Yao Tong Bao. 1983 May;8(3):32-4.

    62) Sun Y, Hersh EM, Lee SL, McLaughlin M, Loo TL, Mavligit GM. Preliminary observations on the effects of the Chinese medicinal herbs Astragalus membranaceus and Ligustrum lucidum on lymphocyte blastogenic responses. J Biol Response Mod. 1983;2(3):227-37.


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